An introduction to the volcano and the volcanic eruptions

Stratovolcano Stratovolcanoes or composite volcanoes are tall conical mountains composed of lava flows and other ejecta in alternate layers, the strata that gives rise to the name.

An introduction to the volcano and the volcanic eruptions

See Article History Volcano, vent in the crust of the Earth or another planet or satellite, from which issue eruptions of molten rock, hot rock fragments, and hot gases. Yet while eruptions are spectacular to watch, they can cause disastrous loss of life and property, especially in densely populated regions of the world.

Sometimes beginning with an accumulation of gas-rich magma molten underground rock in reservoirs near the surface of the Earth, they can be preceded by emissions of steam and gas from small vents in the ground.

Swarms of small earthquakeswhich may be caused by a rising plug of dense, viscous magma oscillating against a sheath of more-permeable magma, may also signal volcanic eruptions, especially explosive ones.

In some cases, magma rises in conduits to the surface as a thin and fluid lava, either flowing out continuously or shooting straight up in glowing fountains or curtains.

In other cases, entrapped gases tear the magma into shreds and hurl viscous clots of lava into the air. In more violent eruptions, the magma conduit is cored out by an explosive blast, and solid fragments are ejected in a great cloud of ash-laden gas that rises tens of thousands of metres into the air.

Volcanic activity at Kilauea in Hawaii. Molten sulfur and volcanic gases bubbling out of an undersea vent near the Mariana Islands. One can say, for example, that large lava flows erupt from Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaiireferring here to the vent; but one can also say that Mauna Loa is a gently sloping volcano of great size, the reference in this case being to the landform.

Volcanic landforms have evolved over time as a result of repeated volcanic activity. Mauna Loa typifies a shield volcano, which is a huge, gently sloping landform built up of many eruptions of fluid lava.

Mount Fuji in Japan is an entirely different formation. With its striking steep slopes built up of layers of ash and lava, Mount Fuji is a classic stratovolcano.

An introduction to the volcano and the volcanic eruptions

Iceland provides fine examples of volcanic plateaus, while the seafloor around Iceland provides excellent examples of submarine volcanic structures. Heat does not easily escape from large bodies such as the Earth by the processes of conduction or radiation. Volcanoes are the surface sign of this thermal process.

Their roots reach deep inside the Earth, and their fruits are hurled high into the atmosphere. At rift zones, or divergent margins, shield volcanoes tend to form as two oceanic plates pull slowly apart and magma effuses upward through the gap.

Volcanoes are not generally found at strike-slip zones, where two plates slide laterally past each other.

Volcanoes 101

Volcanoes are closely associated with plate tectonic activity. Other volcanoes, such as those of the Hawaiian Islands, occur in the middle of a plate, providing important evidence as to the direction and rate of plate motion.

Volcanoes and thermal fields that have been active during the past 10, years. The study of volcanoes and their products is known as volcanologybut these phenomena are not the realm of any single scientific discipline. Rather, they are studied by many scientists from several specialties: Clearly the destructive potential of volcanoes is tremendous.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

But the risk to people living nearby can be reduced significantly by assessing volcanic hazards, monitoring volcanic activity and forecasting eruptions, and instituting procedures for evacuating populations.

In addition, volcanism affects humankind in beneficial ways. Volcanism provides beautiful scenery, fertile soils, valuable mineral deposits, and geothermal energy. This sensor is part of a wireless network of such devices designed to monitor the tremors, ground deformation, explosions, and ash emissions associated with Drowned volcanoes.

Volcanic activity breathes life into a barren void deep underwater. he crew was sceptical about reports of colourful communities on these sea mounts, but km down the.

Activity for the week of 7 November November The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program.

Volcanoes and Eruptions A volcano is an opening, in the planet’s surface which allows hot, molten rock, ash and gases to escape from below the surface. The name, ‘volcano’ originates from the name Vulcan, a god of fire in Roman mythology.

The Effect of Volcanic Eruptions on Climate Introduction Recently there has been a lot of. Yes. Within the past two million years, episodic volcanic eruptions have occurred in the Yellowstone area—three of them major.

What is the caldera shown on the park map? The Yellowstone Caldera was created by a massive volcanic eruption approximately , years ago. Subsequent lava flows filled. Volcanoes are as dangerous as they are majestic. Over 50 eruptions rock our planet every year.

This video helps you understand what causes volcanoes to form and erupt—and shows where they are most likely to be found.

Hekla's eruption of 26 Feb. - 8 March - Summary - HEKLA ERUPTS AGAIN AFTER 9 YEARS!! 8 March As reported by NORDVULC, the eruption is now considered to be over.

The last weak volcanic activity occurred on 5 .

List of largest volcanic eruptions - Wikipedia