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As a group, these disorders are described by DSM-IV-TR as "enduring pattern[s] of inner experience and behavior" that are sufficiently rigid and deep-seated to bring a person into repeated conflicts with his or her social and occupational environment.
To meet the diagnosis of a personality disorder, the patient's problematic behaviors must appear in two or more of the following areas: Doctors rarely give a diagnosis of personality disorder to children on the grounds that children's personalities are still in process of formation and may change considerably by the time they are in their late teens.
NPD is defined more specifically as a pattern of grandiosity exaggerated claims to talents, importance, or specialness in the patient's private fantasies or outward behavior; a need for constant admiration from others; and a lack of empathy for others.
The term narcissistic is derived from an ancient Greek legend, the story of Echo and Narcissus. According to the legend, Echo was a woodland nymph who fell in love with Narcissus, who was an uncommonly handsome but also uncommonly vain young man.
He contemptuously rejected her expressions of love. She pined away and died. The god Apollo was angered by Narcissus' pride and self-satisfaction, and condemned him to die without ever knowing human love. One day, Narcissus was feeling thirsty, saw a pool of clear water nearby, and knelt beside it in order to dip his hands in the water and drink.
He saw his face reflected on the surface of the water and fell in love with the reflection. Unable to win a response from the image in the water, Narcissus eventually died beside the pool.
Havelock Ellis, a British psychologistfirst used the story of Echo and Narcissus in as a capsule summary of pathological self-absorption.
The words narcissist and narcissistic have been part of the vocabulary of psychology and psychiatry ever since. They have, however, been the subjects of several controversies.
In order to understand NPD, the reader may find it helpful to have an outline of the different theories about narcissism in human beings, its relation to other psychiatric disorders, and its connections to the wider culture. What DSM-IV-TR defines as narcissistic personality disorder, ICD lumps together with "eccentric, impulsive-type, immature, passive-aggressive, and psychoneurotic personality disorders.
For the clinician to make the diagnosis, an individual must fit five or more of the following descriptions: He or she has a grandiose sense of self-importance exaggerates accomplishments and demands to be considered superior without real evidence of achievement.
He or she lives in a dream world of exceptional success, power, beauty, genius, or "perfect" love. He or she thinks of him- or herself as "special" or privileged, and that he or she can only be understood by other special or high-status people.
He or she demands excessive amounts of praise or admiration from others. He or she feels entitled to automatic deference, complianceor favorable treatment from others.
He or she is exploitative towards others and takes advantage of them. He or she lacks empathy and does not recognize or identify with others' feelings. He or she is frequently envious of others or thinks that they are envious of him or her.
He or she "has an attitude" or frequently acts in haughty or arrogant ways. These four disorders are grouped together on the basis of symptom similarities, insofar as patients with these disorders appear to others as overly emotional, unstable, or self-dramatizing.
The other three disorders in Cluster B are antisocial, borderline, and histrionic personality disorders. It is possible for patients to have symptoms of more than one personality disorder or to have symptoms from different clusters.
In addition, patients diagnosed with any personality disorder may also meet the criteria for mood, substance abuse, or other disorders. Ever since the s, when psychiatrists began to notice an increase in the number of their patients that had narcissistic disorders, they have made attempts to define these disorders more precisely.
At that time, NPD was considered virtually untreatable because people who suffer from it rarely enter or remain in treatment; typically, they regard themselves as superior to their therapist, and they see their problems as caused by other people's "stupidity" or "lack of appreciation.
This age group distinction represents an ongoing controversy about the nature of NPD—whether it is fundamentally a character disorder, or whether it is a matter of learned behavior that can be unlearned. Therapists who incline toward the first viewpoint are usually pessimistic about the results of treatment for patients with NPD.
One expert in the field of NPD has suggested the following subcategories of narcissistic personalities: These are people who feel emotionally needy and undernourished, and may well appear clingy or demanding to those around them.
This type of narcissist feels intense contempt for him- or herself, but projects it outward onto others. Paranoid narcissists frequently drive other people away from them by hypercritical and jealous comments and behaviors.How to recognize and treat colds, the flu, and whooping cough in babies, plus an age-based guide to fever, cough, and cold medi Pinkeye (conjunctivitis) in babies Find out whether pinkeye (also known as conjunctivitis) could be causing your newborn or older baby's red, crusty eyes, how ser.
Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is defined by the Fourth Edition Text Revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR, a handbook that mental health professionals use to diagnose mental disorders) as one of ten personality timberdesignmag.com a group, these disorders are described by DSM-IV-TR as "enduring pattern[s] of inner experience and behavior" that.
Recently, one of our readers asked if we would write an article about the difficulties faced by children and adults who were adopted.
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