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Where can I learn more about key reinstallation attacks? Do we now need WPA3? No, luckily implementations can be patched in a backwards-compatible manner.

This means a patched client can still communicate with an unpatched access point APand vice versa. In other words, a patched client or access point sends exactly the same handshake messages as before, and at exactly the same moment in time.

However, the security updates will assure a key is only installed once, preventing our attack. So again, update all your devices once security updates are available.

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Finally, although an unpatched client can still connect to a patched AP, and vice versa, both the client and AP must be patched to defend against all attacks! Should I change my Wi-Fi password?

Changing the password of your Wi-Fi network does not prevent or mitigate the attack. So you do not have to update the password of Paper research site web Wi-Fi network. Instead, you should make sure all your devices are updated, and you should also update the firmware of your router.

Nevertheless, after updating both your client devices and your router, it's never a bad idea to change the Wi-Fi password. Yes, that network configuration is also vulnerable.

So everyone should update their devices to prevent the attack! You use the word "we" in this website. I use the word "we" because that's what I'm used to writing in papers.

In practice, all the work is done by me, with me being Mathy Vanhoef. My awesome supervisor is added under an honorary authorship to the research paper for his excellent general guidance.

But all the real work was done on my own. So the author list of academic papers does not represent division of work: Is my device vulnerable?

Any device that uses Wi-Fi is likely vulnerable. Contact your vendor for more information, or consult this community maintained list on GitHub. What if there are no security updates for my router or access point?

Or if it does not support First, the FT handshake is part of Additionally, most home routers or APs do not support or will not use client functionality. In other words, your home router or AP likely does not require security updates.

Instead, it are mainly enterprise networks that will have to update their network infrastructure i. That said, some vendors discovered implementation-specific security issues while investigating our attack. For example, it was discovered that hostapd reuses the ANonce value in the 4-way handshake during rekeys.

Concretely this means that, even if your router or AP does not support Contact your vendor for more details. Finally, we remark that you can try to mitigate attacks against routers and APs by disabling client functionality which is for example used in repeater modes and disabling Additionally, update all your other client devices such as laptops and smartphones.

If one or more of your client devices is not receiving updates, you can also try to contact your router's vendor and ask if they have an update that prevents attacks against connected devices.

Is it sufficient to patch only the access point? Or to patch only clients? Currently, all vulnerable devices should be patched. In other words, patching the AP will not prevent attacks against vulnerable clients.

Similarly, patching all clients will not prevent attacks against vulnerable access points. That said, it is possible to modify the access point such that vulnerable clients when connected to this AP cannot be attacked.The invisible web consists of sites that are not linked to externally, which makes them hidden from Google’s searching and indexing software.

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