Download Now Student academic writing is at the heart of teaching and learning in higher education. Students are assessed largely by what they write, and need to learn both general academic conventions as well as disciplinary writing requirements in order to be successful in higher education. Teaching Academic Writing is a 'toolkit' designed to help higher education lecturers and tutors teach writing to their students. Containing a range of diverse teaching strategies, the book offers both practical activities to help students develop their writing abilities and guidelines to help lecturers and tutors think in more depth about the assessment tasks they set and the feedback they give to students.
Academy In ancient Greece, after the establishment of the original Academy, Plato 's colleagues and pupils developed spin-offs of his method. Arcesilausa Greek student of Plato established the Middle Academy. Carneadesanother student, established the New Academy.
In BC, Aristotle refined the method with his own theories and established the Lyceum in another gymnasium. Africa[ edit ] The library of Alexandria in Egypt was frequented by intellectuals from Africa, Europe and Asia studying various aspects of philosophy, language and mathematics.
The University of Timbuktu was a medieval university in Timbuktupresent-day Maliwhich comprised three schools: During its zenith, the university had an average attendance of around 25, students within a city of aroundpeople.
The Imperial Central Academy at Nanjingfounded inwas a result of the evolution of Shang Xiang and it became the first comprehensive institution combining education and research and was divided into five faculties inwhich later became Nanjing University. In the 8th century another kind of institution of learning emerged, named Shuyuanwhich were generally privately owned.
There were thousands of Shuyuan recorded in ancient times. The degrees from them varied from one to another and those advanced Shuyuan such as Bailudong Shuyuan and Yuelu Shuyuan can be classified as higher institutions of learning. India[ edit ] Taxila or Takshashilain ancient Indiamodern-day Pakistanwas an early centre of learning, near present-day Islamabad in the city of Taxila.
It is considered as one of the ancient universities of the world. According to scattered references which were only fixed a millennium later it may have dated back to at least the 5th century BC.
Takshashila is perhaps best known because of its association with Chanakya. The famous treatise Arthashastra Sanskrit for The knowledge of Economics by Chanakya, is said to have been composed in Takshashila itself.
The Vedas and the Eighteen Artswhich included skills such as archeryhuntingand elephant lore, were taught, in addition to its law schoolmedical schooland school of military science. It survived until when it was set upon, destroyed and burnt by the marauding forces of Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji.
It was devoted to Buddhist studies, but it also trained students in fine arts, medicine, mathematics, astronomy, politics and the art of war. It had a nine-story library where monks meticulously copied books and documents so that individual scholars could have their own collections.
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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Main article: Its library had an initial collection of 80, volumes, given by the Caliph.
The collection was said to have grown tovolumes. Medieval university In Europethe academy dates to the ancient Greeks and Romans in the pre-Christian era.
Newer universities were founded in the 12th and 13th centuries, and the European institution of academia took shape. Monks and priests moved out of monasteries to cathedral cities and other towns where they opened the first schools dedicated to advanced study.
The most notable of these new schools were in BolognaSalamancaParisOxford and Cambridgewhile others were opened throughout Europe. The seven liberal arts — the Trivium GrammarRhetoricand Logicand the Quadrivium ArithmeticGeometryMusicand Astronomy — had been codified in late antiquity.
This was the basis of the curriculum in Europe until newly available Arabic texts and the works of Aristotle became more available in Europe in the 12th century. It remained in place even after the new scholasticism of the School of Chartres and the encyclopedic work of Thomas Aquinasuntil the humanism of the 15th and 16th centuries opened new studies of arts and sciences.
Renaissance academies in Italy[ edit ] With the Neoplatonist revival that accompanied the revival of humanist studiesaccademia took on newly vivid connotations. Cosimo had been inspired by the arrival at the otherwise ineffective Council of Florence of Gemistos Plethonwho seemed a dazzling figure to the Florentine intellectuals.• 3 • ACA Code of Ethics Purpose The ACA Code of Ethics serves six main purposes: 1.
The Code sets forth the ethical obligations of ACA members and provides guidance intended to inform the ethical practice of professional counselors. 2. The Code identifies ethical considerations relevant to professional counselors and counselors-in-training.
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GRAMMAR FOR ACADEMIC WRITING iv Introduction Grammar for Academic Writing provides a selective overview of the key areas of English grammar that you need to master, in order to express yourself correctly and appropriately in academic writing.
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Academic writing is conducted in several sets of forms and genres, normally in an impersonal and dispassionate tone, targeted for a critical and informed audience, based on closely investigated knowledge, and intended to reinforce or challenge concepts or timberdesignmag.com usually circulates within the academic world ('the academy'), but the academic writer may also find an audience outside via.
Welcome to Academic and Professional Writing Ascent - Academic English Online program APW are very pleased to announce the launch of ASCENT – a free online academic .