In order to sift through the many layers of prejudice that Lee exposes in her novel, the reader needs to understand the complex history of race relations in the South. Many states — particularly in the South — passed "Jim Crow" laws named after a black, minstrel show characterwhich severely limited how African Americans could participate in society. The first Jim Crow law appeared in ; the laws increased from there and lasted until the civil rights movement of the s. Many whites at the time believed that instead of progressing as a race, blacks were regressing with the abolition of slavery.
It generated bitterness and controversy.
The people who lived through Reconstruction viewed it from sharply different perspectives. Many white southerners saw it as a devastating experience, a time when vindictive northerners humiliated the South and delayed reunification.
Northerners argued that forcible federal intervention was the only way to stop the old southern aristocracy from returning and subjugating their former slaves and to keep die-hard Confederates from restoring southern society to the way it had been before the war.
Many considered Reconstruction significant for other reasons. They saw it as a small but important first step to putting former slaves on the path to claiming their civil rights and accumulating economic power.
Reconstruction did not bring African Americans enough legal protection or material resources to assure them anything resembling equality, and when it ended in the federal government abandoned the freed slaves to a system of economic serfdom and legal subordination.
The African Americans who continued to live in what came to be called the New South could only produce token resistance to the new southern system for the remainder of the 19th century.
The Problems Southern united states and white people essay Peace Emancipation had stripped many white southerners of their slaves, and they had no capital and almost no personal property for rebuilding their lives and fortunes. Towns were gutted, plantations burned, fields grown to weeds, and bridges and railroads destroyed.
Many white southerners faced starvation and homelessness. More thanConfederate soldiers died in the war and thousands more came home wounded or sick. The Legend of the Lost Cause, romanticizing the South as its citizens remembered it in the days before the War, became a unifying point of hope for southerners.
Southern blacks faced the same stringent conditions as their white neighbors. Nearlyof them had fought for the Union, and 38, had died. These African Americans envisioned a life free from the injustices and humiliations of slavery with the same rights and protections as white people enjoyed.
African Americans disagreed among themselves on how to achieve freedom. Some demanded that economic resources like land be redistributed, and others just wanted legal equality, confident that if they had the same opportunities that white people had they would earn places in American society.
White southerners had a different view of freedom. To them, freedom meant the ability to control their own destinies without the North or the federal government interfering.
In the aftermath of the Civil War, they tried to restore southern society to the way it had been in the antebellum period.
Leaders of both parties believed that readmitting the South to the Union would reunite the Democrats and weaken the Republicans.
Republicans disagreed among themselves about the proper approach to Reconstruction. Conservative Republicans insisted that the South accept the abolition of slavery but did not suggest any other conditions for readmission of the states that had seceded.
Radical Republicans, following the lead of Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania and Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts, demanded that Confederate civil and military leaders be punished, that many southern whites be disenfranchised, that black legal rights be protected, and that the property of wealthy white southerners be confiscated and distributed among the freedmen.
Moderate Republicans rejected the vengeance of the Radicals, but desired some concessions from the South, including AfricanAmerican rights. Ten Percent Plan Sympathizing with the moderate and conservative Republicans, President Abraham Lincoln pursued a lenient plan for Reconstruction that he announced in December He wanted to quickly readmit southern states into the Union in good standing and with a minimum of retaliation.
He proposed what he called a 10 percent plan: Using this formula, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee reestablished loyal governments in President Lincoln also wanted to extend suffrage to African Americans who were educated, owned property, and had served in the Union army.
He created the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands and insisted that the new freedmen would have equal rights. History and Reconstruction would undoubtedly have taken a more positive turn if southerner John Wilkes Booth had not assassinated President Lincoln on April 14, The assassination extended and deepened the bitterness of the Civil War on both sides.
A tactless and intemperate man, Johnson, a Democrat from Tennessee, resented the freed slaves and refused to support any plans that gave them civil or voting rights. Soon after he took office, he revealed his Reconstruction plan, or as he called it, his Restoration plan, which he implemented in during the congressional recess.
As Lincoln had done, he offered amnesty to southerners who would take the oath of allegiance. He appointed a provisional governor for each state and instructed the governor to invite qualified voters to elect delegates to a constitutional convention. To be readmitted to Congress, a state had to revoke its ordinance of secession, abolish slavery, ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, and repudiate the Confederate and state war debts.
As a final restoration step, each state had to elect a state government and send representatives to Congress. By the end ofall of the seceded states had formed new governments and were prepared to rejoin the Union when Congress recognized them. Many northerners were disturbed at these Reconstruction results.
They were dismayed that southerners were reluctant to free the slaves and astonished that states claiming to be loyal to the United States would elect leaders of the recent Confederacy.
The Democratic Party, proclaiming itself the party of white men, supported Johnson. In response to recalcitrance, the Radical Republicans blocked the readmission of the rebellious states to the Congress in fall The culture of the Southern United States, or Southern culture, is a subculture of the United States.
The combination of its unique history and the fact that many Southerners maintain—and even nurture—an identity separate from the rest of the country has led to its being the most studied and written-about region of the U.S.
The culture of the Southern United States, or Southern culture, is a subculture of the United States. The combination of its unique history and the fact that many Southerners maintain—and even nurture—an identity separate from the rest of the country has led to its being the most studied and written-about region of the U.S.
From the music of African slaves in the United States through the music scene of the 's, Jones traces the influence of what he calls "negro music" on white America - not only in the context of music and pop culture but also in terms of the values and perspectives passed on through the music/5(8).
Essay on Southern United States and Extreme Fondness Lexie Mauldon Comp. 1 M.T.
Clark Stereotypes 2/16/14 You Might Be a Redneck If Stereotypes, we can't live with them, and we can't live without them. Southern United States and White People Many African Americans gained freedom of slavery from to during the same period the institution of slavery was expanded.
Slavery was expanded because of the profits from growing cotton and the industrialization the North had. Southern United States and White People Essay Free papers || Many African Americans gained freedom of bondage from to during the same period the establishment of bondage was expanded.